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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

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Also listed as: Trigonella foenum-graecum
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • 1-Methylnicotinic acid, 3-carboxy-1-methyl pyridinium, 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl quercetin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine (4-OH-Ile), 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-5'-methoxylisoflavone, abish (Amharic), alholva (Spanish), alkaloids, amber, beta-carotene, betaines, beta-sitosteryl glucopyranoside, biochanin A, bird's foot, bockhornsklöver (Swedish), Bockshornklee (German), Bockshornsamen (German), calycosin, Canadian fenugreek seed, Canadian-grown fenugreek, carotenoids, çemen (Turkish), chilbe, CN 19062, CN 19067, CN 19070, CN 19071, coumarin, D-3-O-methyl-chiroinsitol, daidzein, dioscin, diosgenin, ethyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, Fabaceae, fatty acids, fenegriek (Dutch), fenigreko, fenogreco (Galician, Spanish), fenogrego, fenugree, fenugreek flour, fenugreek gums, fenugreek leaves, fenugreek saponin I, fenugreek seed, fenugreek spouts, FenuLife®, fenu-thyme, fieno greco (Italian), flavonoids, Foenugraeci semen, formononetin, furostanol glycosides, galactomannan, gamma-schizandrin, gitogenin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, gitogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, görögszéna (Hungarian), graine de fenugrec (French), gray hay, Greek hay, Greek hay seed, griechische Heusamen (German), halba (Malay), hilbeh (Arabic, Hebrew), hu lu ba, hulba (Arabic), irilone, iron, kaempferol 3,7-O-alpha-L-dirhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside, kasoori methi (Hindi, Urdu), kozieradka pospolita (Polish), kreeka lambalääts (Estonian), lectins, mente (Kannada), mentikura (Telugu), mentulu (Telugu), methi (Assamese, Bengali, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Maithili, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Urdu), methika (Sanskrit), methini, methri, methro, methylnicotinic acid, methyl-protodeltonin, methyl-protodioscin, minerals, mithi guti (Assamese), N-methyl nicotinic acid, N,N'-dicarbazyl, naringenin, niacin, nicotinic acid, orientin-2''-O-p-trans-coumarate, pazhitnik grecheskiy (Russian), penantazi (Burmese), phenolic acids, protodioscin, quarto, quercetin, quercetin 3,7-O-alpha-L-dirhamnoside, riboflavin, sag methi (Hindi), sambala, sapogenins, saponins, sarsasapogenin, sarsasapogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, sarviapila (Finnish), scopoletin, shabaliidag (Pahlavi), shambelile (Farsi), smilagenin, sotolone, star fenugreek, syndrex, tricin, tricin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, trigonella, Trigonella, Trigonella balansae, Trigonella caerulea, Trigonella foenum-gracecum, Trigonella poenumgraecum L., Trigonella semen, Trigonella stellata, trigonelline, trigoneoside Xa, trigoneoside Xb, trigoneoside XIb, trigoneoside XIIa, trigoneoside XIIb, trigoneoside XIIIa, uluhal (Sinhala), uwatu (Swahili), vendayam (Tamil), venthayam (Malayalam), vitamin C, vitexin, vitexin-2''-O-p-trans-coumarate, wheat-fenugreek, yamogenin, ZT-5.
  • Brand names: Fenugreek by Nature's Way, Fenugreek by Now, Fenugreek by Planetary Formulas, Fenugreek by Puritan's Pride, Fenugreek by Solaray, Fenugreek by Vitamin World, Fenugreek Caps by Thompson Nutritional Products, Fenugreek Capsules by Greenbush, Fenugreek Freeze Dried by Eclectic Institute, Fenugreek Liquid Extract by Eclectic Institute, Fenugreek Liquid Extract by Nature's Answer, Fenugreek Powder by Greenbush, Fenugreek Seed by Doctor's Trust, Fenugreek Seed by Natural Factors, Fenugreek Seed by Nature's Herbs, Fenugreek Seed by Swanson, Fenugreek Seed C/S Powder by Alternative Health and Herb Remedies, Fenugreek Seed Liquid Extract by Gaia Herbs, Fenugreek Tea by Alvita Tea, Fenugreek Tincture by Alternative Health and Herb Remedies, Fenugrene by Laboratoires Legra (France), Organic Fenugreek Seed by Solaray, Single Herb Fenugreek Vegicaps by Christopher's Original Formulas.
  • Combination product examples: Fibernat (fenugreek, guar gum, and wheat bran), Billberry Plus by Eagle Pharmaceuticals (Australia), Blood Sugar by Nature's Way, Blood Sugar Formula by Iherb Inc., Bustea Enhancement Tea by Greenbush, Comfrey and Fenugreek by Dial Herbs, Completia Diabetic Multivitamin by Nature's Way, Daily Detox II by DNE Pharmaceuticals Inc., Enhancement Blend Capsules by Greenbush, Femaprin by Nature's Way, Fenugreek Plus by Metagenics, Fenugreek and Thyme by Nature's Sunshine, Fenugreek and Thyme by Now, Fenugreek and Thyme by Solaray, Fenulife® Best Weight Control by Swanson, Fenulin by Gerard House Ltd (United Kingdom), FenuZymeT Bronc Care by Amazing Herbs/Theramune, Fibernat (fenugreek seed powder, guar gum, and wheat bran), FolliGroT System 1 Fenugreek Extract by FolliGro Ltd, Gadional by Cinfa (Spain), Garlic and Horseradish Complex by Suisse Naturopathics (Australia), Garlic and Horseradish Plus C Complex by Cenovis (Australia), Gland Formula Liquid by Alternative Health and Herb Remedies, Glucobetic® by Flourish, Gluco ScienceT by Source Naturals, Glucose Modulators by Solgar, Glucose Optimizer by Jarrow, Glucose Regulation by Doctor's Choice, Glycemic Factors by BioChem, Heart Formula Tincture by Alternative Health and Herb Remedies, Herbal Breast Enlargement Kit by Greenbush, Immune System Formula Tincture by Alternative Health and Herb Remedies, Lung Support Formula Tincture by Alternative Health and Herb Remedies, More Milk Plus by MotherLove, Natural Factors betaine HCL with Fenugreek, Panax Complex by Blackmores Ltd (Australia), Promilin Fenugreek Extract by Source Naturals, Sinus and Hayfever by Vitaglow (Australia), Sthenorex by Laboratoires Pharmygiene (France), Sugar Balance by Lean Results, Sugar Ease by Pinnacle, Super CKL Colon Detox by Amazing Herbs/Theramune, System Well by Nature's Way, System Well Ultimate Immunity by Nature's Way, Ultimate Respiratory Cleanse by Nature's Secret, Women's Nursing Mom Tea by Yogi Tea.

Background
  • Fenugreek is a plant in the family Fabaceae. Both its leaves and seeds are commonly used. Fenugreek is produced in Asia, the Middle East, South America, and southern Europe. Fenugreek seeds are often used in the making of garam masala (a South Asian spice blend). Fenugreek has a long history of medical uses in Indian and Chinese medicine, and it has been used for numerous indications, including for labor induction, as a digestive aid, and as a general tonic to improve metabolism and health.
  • Preliminary research has suggested possible blood sugar-lowering and blood lipid-lowering properties of fenugreek seed powder when taken by mouth. However, at this time, the evidence is insufficient to make a conclusion on the effectiveness of fenugreek for diabetes or high blood lipids. Preliminary trials have also studied the use of fenugreek to stimulate breast milk production and for exercise performance enhancement, obesity, and skin care.
  • Caution is warranted in patients taking blood sugar-lowering agents. Blood glucose levels should be monitored. Lowered blood potassium levels have also been reported. Potassium levels should be monitored in patients taking fenugreek and potassium-lowering agents, and in those with underlying heart disease.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Fenugreek is commonly used for diabetes prevention and treatment. In preliminary research, fenugreek lowered serum glucose levels both acutely and chronically. Although this is promising, additional research is needed to make a firm conclusion.

B


Fenugreek may be helpful in treating type 1 diabetes. Although preliminary studies are promising, high-quality studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


There is insufficient evidence to support the use of fenugreek as an exercise performance enhancement agent. Further well-designed research is required before conclusions can be made.

C


Fenugreek has been used traditionally in India to increase milk flow. Additional research is needed to confirm this finding.

C


In preliminary research, a cream containing fenugreek and henna reduced lice infestation. Additional research investigating fenugreek alone is warranted.

C


Fenugreek has been investigated as a treatment for high cholesterol. Although initial results are promising, additional research is needed before conclusions can be made.

C


Limited research suggests that fenugreek may reduce daily fat intake, increase fullness and satiety, and reduce dietary fat intake. Further well-designed human research is required before conclusions can be drawn.

C


Preliminary research suggests that a skin cream containing fenugreek seed extract benefits the skin. Further research is required before conclusions can be made.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Abortifacient (induces abortion), abscesses, Alzheimer's disease, analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, appetite stimulant, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), baldness, boils, breast enhancement, bronchitis, burns, calming, cancer, canker sores, cataracts, cavities, cellulitis (a bacterial skin infection), childbirth facilitation/induction, colic, colon cancer, constipation, cough (chronic), diarrhea, digestion, dropsy (tissue swelling), dysentery (bloody diarrhea), dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), dyspepsia (upset stomach), energy enhancement, enhancing recovery from surgery or illness, exercise recovery, fever, flatulence (gas), food uses (flavor), furunculosis (acute skin disease),gallstones, gastric ulcers, gastritis (stomach inflammation), gastrointestinal conditions, gout (foot inflammation), heart conditions (loss or lack of strength), infection, hernia, high blood pressure, hyperthyroidism, immunomodulator, impotence, indigestion, infections, inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, insecticide, insulin potentiation, kidney dysfunction, kidney stone prevention, labor induction (uterine stimulant), leg edema, leg ulcers, leukemia, liver damage (alcohol-induced), liver enlargement or disease, lymphadenitis (inflammation of the lymph nodes), memory, menopausal symptoms, metabolic syndrome (coronary heart disease), myalgia (muscle pain), pain relief, peptic ulcer (.), postmenopausal vaginal dryness, protection against alcohol toxicity, rickets, splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), staphylococcal infections, stomach upset, thiamin deficiency, tuberculosis, ulcers, vitamin deficiencies, wound healing.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older):

  • Products rich in fenugreek fiber may interfere with the absorption of medications taken by mouth. Medications should be taken separately from such products. However, fenugreek is rarely used for its fiber content.
  • There is no proven safe or effective dose of fenugreek in adults.
  • For diabetes mellitus type 1,100 grams of debitterized powdered fenugreek seeds divided in two equal doses has been incorporated into bread and taken by mouth during lunch and dinner for 10 days.
  • For diabetes mellitus type 2, the following doses have been taken by mouth: 2.5 grams of fenugreek seed powder in capsule form, twice daily for three months; 25 grams of seed powder, divided in two equal doses; and 56 grams of bread containing 5% fenugreek at a single breakfast. Also, six grams of crushed or cut seed has been taken by mouth daily, although other typical dosages may be as much as 15-100 grams.
  • For exercise performance enhancement, 500 milligrams of Torabolic® (fenugreek extract) has been taken by mouth daily for eight weeks. Other sources have suggested taking two capsules of Torabolic® by mouth daily, in the morning with protein on nontraining days and 1-2 hours before a workout on training days.
  • As a breast milk stimulant, one capsule, containing 600 milligrams of powdered seed, has been taken by mouth three times daily for 30 days.
  • For high cholesterol and triglycerides, the following doses have been taken by mouth: 2.5 grams of fenugreek seed powder in capsule form twice daily for three months; 100 grams of debitterized powdered seeds divided in two equal doses; and 25-50 grams of a defatted fenugreek extract in powder form daily for 20 days.
  • For obesity, fenugreek extract (1,176 milligrams) has been taken by mouth daily for six weeks. A single dose of eight grams of fenugreek fiber has been taken by mouth at breakfast.
  • Fenugreek has been applied on the skin. For general skin care, a cream containing 4% concentrated fenugreek extract has been applied on the cheeks daily for six weeks. Fenugreek seeds ground with water to make a poultice have been used for the management of skin infections, muscle pain, inflammation of the lymph nodes, gout, wounds, and leg ulcers.

Children (younger than 18 years):

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose of fenugreek in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to fenugreek, its constituents, or plants in the Fabaceae family, including peanut and chickpea.
  • Fenugreek in curry powder was allergenic in a patient who reported severe bronchospasm, wheezing, and diarrhea. Inhaling fenugreek seed powder may cause allergic or asthmatic reactions, including bronchospasm, wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and fainting. Occupational asthma caused by fenugreek has been reported; one spice factory worker allergic to both coriander and fenugreek reported hives, swelling beneath the skin, runny nose, inflamed conjunctiva, and bronchospasm after handling both spices. Application of fenugreek to the scalp caused numbness of the head, facial swelling, and wheezing in one patient with asthma.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Fenugreek is likely safe when consumed in amounts commonly found in foods. Fenugreek has traditionally been considered safe and well tolerated. There are reports of dizziness, diarrhea, gas, facial swelling, numbness, difficulty breathing (after inhalation from occupational exposure), wheezing, bronchospasm, asthma, fainting, decreased body weight, nausea, a feeling of fullness, increased urination frequency, a specific urine and sweat smell, and alteration of thyroid hormone levels. Although not well studied in humans, muscle pain may occur.
  • Products rich in fenugreek fiber may interfere with the absorption of medications taken by mouth. Medications should be taken separately from such products. However, fenugreek is rarely used for its fiber content.
  • Fenugreek may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Fenugreek may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or those taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Fenugreek may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these agents may change in the blood and may cause increased or decreased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. Patients using any medications should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Fenugreek may lower blood potassium. Use cautiously in patients taking agents that decrease blood potassium levels, those prone to low blood potassium, those using cardiac glycoside drugs, or those with underlying heart disease.
  • Use cautiously in children, due to the risk of low blood sugar.
  • Use cautiously in patients with thyroid conditions and in patients using cholesterol-lowering or triglyceride-lowering medications.
  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to fenugreek, its constituents, plants in the Fabaceae family (including peanut and chickpea), or coriander.
  • Fenugreek in curry powder was allergenic in a patient who reported severe bronchospasm, wheezing, and diarrhea. Inhaling fenugreek seed powder may cause allergic or asthmatic reactions, including bronchospasm, wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and fainting. Occupational asthma caused by fenugreek has been reported; a one spice factory worker allergic to both coriander and fenugreek reported hives, swelling beneath the skin, runny nose and inflamed conjunctiva, and bronchospasm after handling both spices. Application of fenugreek to the scalp caused numbness of the head, facial swelling, and wheezing in one patient with asthma.
  • Avoid during pregnancy and breastfeeding at doses higher than those commonly found in foods, due to uterine-stimulant properties and potential blood sugar-lowering effects.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Avoid during pregnancy and breastfeeding at doses higher than those commonly found in foods, due to a lack of scientific evidence. Fenugreek may have uterine-stimulant properties and blood sugar-lowering effects.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Fenugreek may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Fenugreek may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking insulin or drugs for diabetes by mouth should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Fenugreek may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased or decreased in the blood and may cause increased or decreased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. Patients using any medications should check the package insert, and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Because fenugreek may contain estrogen-like chemicals, the effects of other agents believed to have estrogen-like properties may be altered.
  • Products rich in fenugreek fiber may interfere with the absorption of medications taken by mouth, due to its mucilaginous fiber content and high viscosity in the gut. Medications should be taken separately from such products.
  • Fenugreek may interact with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, agents that decrease blood potassium levels, agents that suppress the immune system, albumin, antiarrhythmic agents, anticancer agents, antidepressant agents (monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)), antifungals, anti-inflammatory agents, antiobesity agents, antiprotozoals, antiulcer agents, aspirin, cardiac glycosides, cholesterol-lowering and triglyceride-lowering drugs, corticosteroids, diuretics, gastrointestinal agents, growth hormones, hormonal agents, iron, laxatives, mineralocorticoids, neurological agents, pain relievers, progesterone, propranolol, sodium bicarbonate, or thyroid hormones.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Fenugreek may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
  • Fenugreek may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Products rich in fenugreek fiber may interfere with the absorption of oral medications, due to its mucilaginous fiber content and high viscosity in the gut. Medications should be taken separately from such products.
  • Fenugreek may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may become too low or too high in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements possibly have on the cytochrome P450 system.
  • Because fenugreek may contain estrogen-like chemicals, the effects of other agents believed to have estrogen-like properties may be altered.
  • Fenugreek may also interact with antiarrhythmic agents, anticancer agents, antidepressant agents (monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)), antifungals, anti-inflammatories, antiobesity agents, antioxidants, antiparasitics, antiulcer agents, black gram, bread, calcium, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, carnitine, cholesterol-lowering and triglyceride-lowering agents, diuretics, drugs that affect the immune system, fiber, gastrointestinal agents, herbs and supplements taken by mouth, herbs and supplements that decrease blood potassium levels, herbs and supplements that increase breast milk volume, herbs and supplements taken by mouth, honey, hormonal agents, insect repellants, iron, iron-containing foods, laxatives, neurologic agents, onion, pain relievers, potassium-containing foods, Rhizopus oligosporus, rice, spices, thyroid agents, vanadate, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin E-containing foods.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Chevassus H, Gaillard JB, Farret A, et al. A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010;66(5):449-455.
  2. Chevassus H, Molinier N, Costa F, et al. A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Phamacol 2009;65(12):1175-1178.
  3. Damanik R, Wahlqvist ML, Wattanapenpaiboon N. Lactagogue effects of Torbangun, a Bataknese traditional cuisine. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006;15(2):267-74.
  4. Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B. Effect of (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India 2001;49:1057-1061.
  5. Izzo AA, Di Carlo G, Borrelli F, et al. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction. Int J Cardiol 2005;98(1):1-14.
  6. Lambert JP, Cormier A. Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21(4):509-512.
  7. Losso JN, Holliday DL, Finley JW, et al. Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus. J Med Food 2009;12(5):1046-1049.
  8. Nahas R, Moher, M. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Can Fam Physician 2009;55(6):591-596.
  9. Patil SP, Niphadkar PV, Bapat MM. Allergy to fenugreek (). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997;78(3):297-300.
  10. Prasanna M. Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek: a clinical study. Indian J Pharmacol 2000;32:34-36.
  11. Satheeshkumar N, Mukherjee PK, Bhadra S, et al. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory potential of standardized extract of L and its constituents. Phytomedicine 2010;17(3-4):292-295.
  12. Slivka D, Cuddy J, Hailes W, et al. Glycogen resynthesis and exercise performance with the addition of fenugreek extract (4-hydroxyisoleucine) to post-exercise carbohydrate feeding. Amino Acids 2008;35(2):439-444.
  13. Thompson-Coon JS, Ernst E. Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view. J Fam Pract 2003;52(6):468-478.
  14. Waqas MK, Akhtar N, Ahmad M, et al. Formulation and characterization of a cream containing extract of fenugreek seeds. Acta Pol Pharm 2010;67(2):173-178.
  15. Wilborn C, Bushey B, Poole C, et al. Effects of Torabolic supplementation on strength and body composition during an 8-week resistance training program. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008;5(1):11.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.


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